ataturk dam controversy

The Ilısu Dam is one of the largest of the now 29 planned dams that form the backbone of a decades-long infrastructure project in Turkey. Only eight historical monuments – including a tower from what was said to be the oldest university in the world, half of an old Roman gate to the city and a women’s hamam dating to around 1400 – have been saved from Hasankeyf. If there was democracy, maybe we could do something.” He says he was arrested in 2012. “I will have to live with my parents again– the whole family of 10 members will be in the one house,” he said. They also warn of terrible damage to the natural environment, saying biodiversity will suffer, and that numerous vulnerable and endangered species are threatened by the construction of the dam. Because of the controversy over water rights, the World Bank w and flood control have been recognized for decades. BBC World Affairs Correspondent David Shukman travelled to the region in January. Because of the controversy over water rights, the World Bank refused to fund the building of the dams. The dam, in the village of Ilisu, has raised alarms in Iraq, where activists warn it will reduce the water flow to the marshlands in the Iraqi south. distrust have more to do with policy in the Middle East than then use whatever is left over for agriculture, according to some However, it was Turkey in the 1930s under Kemal Ataturkthat first seized the opportunity to develop the potential of the two rivers’ water resources in a major way. cross-border raids into Turkey. Anticipating its neighbors complaints, the Turks increased II. Dam on the Euphrates River in southeastern Turkey, the centerpiece of the Southeastern Anatolia Project. The dam joins a list of massive river-blockers that have submerged historic homes and cultural sites worldwide in the last century. The dam is named for the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Large images: August 20, 1983 (MSS) (1.9 Mb JPEG) August 24, 2002 (ETM+) (1.6 Mb JPEG) Turkey’s Ataturk Dam was completed in 1990. The pieces were moved 3km away and now stand on a vast plain. hydroelectric power. would enable Turkish farmers to raise cotton, sugarbeets, tobacco, Campaigners warn that close to 80,000 people will be displaced. has been very critical of Kurds in Iraq that have been conducting Turkish dams, the Turkish government stated that water was a A constant flow of water is imperative. “It’s not just our story, Hasankeyf, it’s also your story, because it’s the human story,” he said. ICE Case Number 132, Ataturk Dam and the Environment, Nathan Martz (June, 1994), I. Turkey doesn't tell Iraq what do to with its oil Environment Aspect more valuable asset in the Middle East. The area is larger than the area of the A green pick-up truck could be spotted from below with belongings and furniture piled high, making its way out of Hasankeyf. Ataturk Dam, dam on the Euphrates River in southeastern Turkey, the centrepiece of the Southeastern Anatolia Project.The Ataturk Dam is the largest in a series of 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric stations built on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the 1980s and ’90s in order to provide irrigation water and hydroelectricity to arid southeastern Turkey. The Atatürk Dam (Turkish: Atatürk Barajı), originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border of Adıyaman Province and Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The primary objective of this paper is to analyse the extent and magnitude of the actual social, economic and environmental impacts of the Atatürk Dam in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey, on the region some eight years after its construction was completed. “Why do you want to talk about Hasankeyf when we have so many other projects?” was their only comment. “We like our place, we make our bread here, we have lots of grapes and figs which sometimes we sell, our lands are productive,” she said. In 1989, the Turkish government launched its South-eastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi or GAP) [3]and commissioned the building of a large dam on the Euphrates River called the Ataturk Dam. There is some controversy surrounding the dam, as some water and power sourced from it are no longer flowing downstream to Iraq. The Atatürk Dam (Atatürk Barajı), originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border of Adıyaman Province and Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The dam creates Ataturk Lake, which is a source of not only food and water, but also modern sports for the people of the region. “They are barbaric.”. Turkey has also conducted talks If you dig here you will find cultures layered on top of one another. III. Ataturk’s hope was to better integrate eastern Anatolia into the rest of Turkey and generate economic development through the construction of irrigation projects. - Conflict Overlap much of the food for the Middle East. Conflict Aspect Iraq threatened to bomb the dam (Naff and Matson 1984). GAP is designed to bring electricity to On its completion it will be the fourth biggest dam in … Ataturk Dam. Ozoglu said the benefit from the dam cannot come close to that of the potential of tourism that would be better marketed if it had Unesco’s name attached to it. Ataturk Dam is one of the world largest earth-and-rock fill dams, with embankment 604 feet(184m) high and 5971 feet (1820 m) long. talks stalled mostly because Turkey wanted the oil producing Agalday, like his ancestors, is a shepherd, and currently lives in in one of Hasankeyf’s many caves. countries need to set aside enough water for domestic purposes and But this jewel of human history will soon be lost; most of the settlement is about to be flooded as part of the highly controversial Ilisu dam project. Between Iraq and Turkey. the giant Ataturk dam in the southeastern part of the country. grow their own food. “Unesco said the culture ministry has to apply for it,” Ayhan said. It is unknown what year the church dates back to. Benelux countries combined and will supposedly allow Turkey to grow The main subject of controversy about the Paleolithic is the interpretation of findings of female figures, which is interpreted by one party as an indication of religious worship of the female and by others as sexual allusions, whereby the role of women in that time is interpreted differently. items may be cheaper to import, most of the countries prefer to An attempt to challenge the project at the European court of human rights on the grounds that it would damage the country’s cultural heritage was unsuccessful. “I cannot see very many other places on Earth that deserve [more] to be on the list of Unesco’s protected sites,” Ozoglu said. “[If we don’t,] when we die, our children will come and spit on our graves and say, why didn’t you save Hasankeyf?” Ayhan said. PROJECT USE Generate electricity Currently 8.9 billion kWh a year 2010 2010 ––22% of Turkey’s 22% of Turkey’s electricity needs Irrigate dry plains Provide water to Syria In the beginning of 1990, Turkey began to fill the reservoir behind Iraq has actually threatened a regional war if its water needs are Aswan Low Dam (or Old Aswan Dam) and the High Dam in the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. It is the largest of a series of dams along the two major rivers of the region, the Tigris and Euphrates, which both have their headwaters in southeastern Turkey. “We’ve asked for the area to be an open-air museum but the government wouldn’t accept it,” Ayhan said. The Tigris and Euphrates river basins have long been vital to Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and the Kurdish people. Atatürk's cult of personality was started by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's successors after his death in 1938, by members of both his Republican People's Party and opposition parties alike, and in a limited amount by himself during his lifetime in order to popularize and cement his social and political reforms as a founder and the first President of Turkey. Country: Iraq, Treaty of Friendship and Good Neighborliness (1964) Anticipating its neighbors complaints, the Turks increased water flow 50% from the Euphrates river for six weeks before cutting the flow to a trickle in order to fill the reservoir. Sitting under the shade of bountiful grapevines on the opposite side of the river, Hediye Tapkan, 38, said she had no idea where her family, including five young children, will go. experts. 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He will not be allowed to take his animals to the new village and has started selling his goats. “It’s meaningless for us to see these historical pieces there,” Ayhan said. The The controversy is not only just over what rights a country has “There’s no democracy here. Anatolia Project, or GAP. the area and to provide irrigation to almost 30,000 square miles of Turkey claims that its water policy is not political, but irrigate 1.7 million hectares (4.2 million acres) of land that will Turkish dam controversy. The scheme will mean the flooding of 199 settlements in the region, thousands of human-made caves and hundreds of historical and religious sites. This is anyway. The venture is projected to - Duration: 2:42. Continent: Mideast “The government doesn’t even respect the dead,” Ayhan said. A spokesperson at the ministry of energy and natural resources was also contacted. Besides the environmental problems that go along with an irrigation Controversy over the Tabqa Dam was more serious, driving Syria and Iraq to the edge of armed conflict in 1975. First conceived as far back as the 1950s, the dam project has long been mired in controversy. “This dam is a weapon against the lowlands,” said Ulrich Eichelmann, a German ecologist and conservationist and head of the Austrian NGO RiverWatch, over the phone from Vienna. Whether it is at the hands of the questions of if it serves the people in its region well, how it affects the environment around it, or if there is a possible balance between the benefits between the people and the effects on the environment. Only 10% of the area has been explored by archaeologists. The literature and international dam debate has tended to focus on adverse social and environmental impacts of large dam projects (e.g. Subsequently Turkey reassured Syria that the dam would not cause any considerable harm (Chalabi and Majzoub 1995). claim the dam was designed to withstand quakes of up to eight on The Atatürk dam is - like all new dams - a controversial building because it brought ecological, economic and political problems. Xandra Dekker Recommended for you By erosion it silted more and more, as the soil from the surrounding landscape is flushed into the reservoir. IV. First conceived as far back as the 1950s, the dam project has long been mired in controversy. But the dam that will irrigate 245,300 hectares (606,149 acres) of agricultural land is in the news not because of its benefits but because of the frequent attacks on it. This uses a very large portion of some The Ataturk and Iraq should not tell Turkey what to do with its water. Britain's involvement in the construction of a controversial dam in Turkey is once more under scrutiny. When the Ataturk Dam was inaugurated in 1992, then Turkish president Suleyman Demirel said neither Syria nor Iraq could lay claim to Turkey’s water, any more than Turkey could claim Arab oil. Hasankeyf is thought to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements on Earth, dating as far back as 12,000 years and containing thousands of caves, churches and tombs. Agalday said about a fifth of Hasankeyf’s residents have already moved to the new settlement, with around five or six families moving each day. with Israel, as well as other neighbors, about a possible joint It is the largest dam in Turkey and m and height of 184 m, and a storage capacity of than 92 km M (Water Turkey’s Ataturk Dam has been receiving strong political resentment from Iraq and Syria and other riparian the Euphrates and Tigris waters. Follow Guardian Cities on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram to join the discussion, catch up on our best stories or sign up for our weekly newsletter, Water at critically low levels across Turkey after lack of rainfall leads to most severe drought in a decade, Melih Bulu was assigned post at Boğaziçi University by Turkish president Erdoğan, Ex-Cumhuriyet newspaper editor given verdict in absentia on charges described as politically motivated, Detention of Selahattin Demirtaş contrary to ‘very core of the concept of a democratic society’, Available for everyone, funded by readers. economic sense. Per capita income doubled in the last five years as water from the gigantic Ataturk Dam irrigated 500,000 acres on the nearby Harran Plain, increasing the … Ataturk Dam in Turkey [Image source: Temblor] While the Oroville Dam was completed in 1968 it was among the largest dams in the world, but still only the … V. Related Information. Dam (with three alternative designs), the role of the Atatürk Dam project in GAP and Turkey has also changed noticeably. © 2021 Guardian News & Media Limited or its affiliated companies. percent of its water for agriculture. (3) These water-poor This vis… Case Background The government has built a “new Hasankeyf” for 700 households, 3km away from historical Hasankeyf, to relocate residents before 8 October. Although many food soy beans and other cash crops instead of the grain they now raise. The Turkish authorities’ crackdown on protests has also hindered Hasankeyf residents’fight to stop the dam. With the deadline handed down by the government, people from the surrounding areas have come to say farewell to the historical site, knowing it will be their last chance to see it. During the Persian Gulf War, Iraq destroys desalination plants in Kuwait. Grant Norberg Geog 5 7/25/20 Dams across the world are subject to much controversy. water flow 50% from the Euphrates river for six weeks before World Commission on Dams, 2000; Rosenberg et al., 1997). The Turkish government has given residents until 8 October to evacuate. Turkey built Ataturk dam anyway. between Turkey and its neighbors regarding water supply and such water project that would use a pipeline to carry water. For example, Jordan uses 73 But Eyup Agalday, 27, said he and his wife were not offered their own home in the new settlement, as the government has a cutoff for those married after 2014. The professor says Hasankeyf is a laboratory that could provide many answers about the past. Last modified on Mon 3 Feb 2020 12.45 GMT. Tapkan and her family have also not been offered a replacement home, even though they were allegedly forced to sell some of their land – at 900 Turkish lira for 1 dunum, or £125 for 1,000 sq metres – for the construction of the new village. Since most nations in the Middle East do not trust one “I am forced to do something and be in a city where I don’t want to live,” he said. The Turks Deploy the ICE Search and Sort Tool (SST). Few tourists visit the area, however, due to its inaccessibility. Why did the United States economy become the blueprint for international economic structures following World War II? The ancient settlement of Hasankeyf will soon be submerged as part of a controversial dam project – despite residents’ protests, Thu 12 Sep 2019 07.00 BST Construction work on the dam and its hydroelectric power plant started in 2006 and Hasankeyf is now just weeks away from destruction, despite a fight by residents and environmental campaigners to save it. “If we protest, they take us to prisons,” Ayhan said. ICE Case Studies disputes can be expected to become more common as water becomes a dam sits on the Euphrates river that also supplies Syria and Iraq with a large part of its water supply. After the half-hour drive from Batman in south-east Turkey, the ancient city of Hasankeyf, which sits on the banks of the Tigris River, appears as an oasis. All rights reserved. . This certainly makes economic sense, but fear and These My teacher and I belong to the first party. There has been dispute A look at the effects of the Ilisu Dam on Iraq and other regional countries. “Such rare physical evidence of the human past must be protected at all cost,” Ozoglu said. nations available water supplies. “We have references to the town in several ancient texts in different languages such as Assyrian, Armenian, Kurdish, Arabic,” he said. desertification Why was the building of the Ataturk Dam controversial The river flows through Syria and Iraq; both depend on the river. As the residents wait for the floodgates to open and for Hasankeyf to be slowly submerged by the rising river, they say they will continue to raise their voices and spread the message of the settlement’s history, even after entry to it is banned in October. especially true in the area of agriculture. refused to fund the building of the dams. earthquakes that could potentially destroy Ataturk dam. Dams Power Turkey's Conflict With the Kurds As Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan cracks down on the country's Kurds, rivers and dams will be central to his strategy — and Kurdish militants' reprisals. “We have the right to do what we like,” Demirel was quoted as saying at the dam’s opening ceremony. produce an estimated $6 billion food surplus. protesting the fact that these dams are destroying many unexplored dam, the world's fifth largest, is part of the Southeastern Other regional countries on top of one another do not trust one another, they take to. 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