geographical globalization examples

Globalization is simply the process through which integration and interaction of countries, companies, and people across the globe. Geographical Issues on Globalization “Globalization is not the end of geography. The national specificity of capital markets explains why there is not a truly global capital market. Mark Altaweel | October 22, 2020November 9, 2016 | Economic Geography. These processes are closing the policy choices for developing countries, which are losing their options. Globalization, as a myth, is the belief is that we are witnessing a process of regionalization with competing trade blocs. The hegemony of neo-liberal ideology is about the triumph of market-oriented ideology, the economization of life, mass consumption and entertainment, deregulation, and so on. It also seems clear that borders matter irrespective of distance. This does not necessarily mean that sovereignty is less of a feature under conditions of globalization. The power of national governments is reinforced, not weakened. This last question points to a significant inversion of cause (geography) and outcome (globalization). As with future globalizing booms, new technologies played a key role in the Silk Road trade. Also, globalization is accompanied by the rising of inequalities within and between countries. More of the pros and cons will be reviewed later on in this section. It is thought that globalization will lead to a homogenization of culture as people around the world will devalue their local culture and adopt American or Westernized ways. Similarly, economic globalization does not eliminate the government's exclusive control over its territory, but alters the particular type of institutional encasing of territory that has developed since World War II. This view argues that globalization is a new form of activity in which a society moves from industrial capitalism to a postindustrial idea of economic relationships. NGO groups and governments are increasingly seeing their role as global citizens who can bring their services and, at times, their ideals as a way to influence societies.[4]. Globalization is an effort to reduce the geographical and political barriers for the smooth functioning of any business. Following the … This study guide looks at the reasons for globalisation and its positive and negative influences. One definition of globalization is that is a process of complex interconnections between societies, cultures, institutions, and individuals that takes place worldwide. One of the possible answers to this question is that local technological dynamism depends on local non-tradable assets such as trust or social capital. Globalization is everywhere—or that is how it seems. From a cultural perspective, there are two positions taken for and against the phenomenon of globalization. For the three regions cited above (which together account for about 80 percent of global gross domestic product), intra-regional trade in goods now accounts for 50 percent or more of exports. Globalization uses up finite resources more quickly. Interdependence among international economies is a great starting point when seeking an understanding of globalization. As a result, this leads to disempowerment of civil society and the homogenization of culture worldwide. While Western ideals and concepts, including music and films, are pervasive, they are also intermixed with local elements. Examples of these groups or blocs would include NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), the EU, and Asian regional organizations. The structural adjustments of the World Bank and IMF (International Monetary Fund), bilateral conditions, rationalization of existing structures, and new regimes under the WTO are factors that aid the globalization process. To satisfy short-term institutional investors and inflate the value of their share options, bosses gamble with their companies' future to ramp up the stock price. International economic integration has tended to be a regional rather than a global phenomenon. 1) Financial globalization; which mean that the world’s financial systems have become interconnected primarily of major cities with respective stock markets. Critics of globalization suggest that globalization is a self-propelling social dynamic; others argue this is not true. 2012. and 250 C.E. It also refers to the increased interdependence among nation-states and … While this may be shown at the local level within the nationstate, it may also be argued at a more macro-level in such a regional formation as the EUROPEAN UNION (EU), seeking to define a “European identity” for its member states in a new global era. The national specificity of capital markets explains why there is not a truly gl… [2] For more on films influenced by Globalization cultural spread and hybridization, see:  Nederveen Pieterse, Jan. 2015. Globalization and Culture: Global Mélange. Family structures in places such as Ecuador have changed, where community members and relatives have began helping with childcare as male adults have often migrated to North America and other regions for city-based jobs.[1]. Unfortunately, not everyone is represented equally in the globalization process as it is affected by wealth, access to global communication media, work, financial assets, and cultural norms. The Silk Road which was made to encourage trade between China and the countries around the Mediterranean Sea will not only flourish the trade between these countries but at the same time also allow the e… Increasingly, what were once considered Western ideals have spread to other societies and they have become increasingly seen as more universal ideals. The weak cultures may not be able to resist forces of globalization, but third world countries should not be unaware of the “hidden agenda” of globalization. Routledge Contemporary Human Geography Series. However, the goal of globalization is not that the entire world would become Westernized and capitalist, but that the Western culture becomes the standard by which other cultures measure themselves. Nonetheless, due to commercial trades after the 11th century, it is nowadays known … Globalization can also be considered as the result of a larger building process of the world market. Also, it is clear that formal regional trade agreements such as NAFTA and the EU potentially foster intraregional trade. No one knows what globalization is, but everyone agrees that globalization exists (Bartelson: 180). In particular, it underlies the arguments of a number of economic geographers that localized agglomerations of economic activity are a product of globalization. Globalists claim that globalization is a new transformation of world order and a positive change. 191. Hardly a day goes by without it being invoked by politicians, by academics, by business or trade union leaders, by journalists, by commentators on radio and television, by consumer and environmental groups, as well as by ordinary individuals. The transformative ability of the globalization process has commonly been associated with both material outcomes in such specific spatial units as localities, regions, and nation-states and peculiar discursive practices by societal partners. The major dynamics at work in the global economy contain the capacity to undo the interaction of sovereignty and territory embedded in the modern state system. These activities represent more than just the simple globalization of economic activity; they refer to the increasing integration of economies and societies across the world. The process is as a result of the investment, outsourced manufacturing and international trade. Economic globalization refers to how exchanges of goods, information, labour, money and images have come to an international scale (Tonkiss: x). der Region zugeordnet ist. It is a global ideological breakthrough in which democracy is considered to be a twin of the market economy, and these together are supported to form a winning team. In reality, the economic sphere is directed by the World Trade Organization (WTO) with its underlying goal of economic equality in political and cultural influence, through the powerful means of information technology, dominated by the West. As an example, migration to major cities and first world countries has increased during the period of Globalization. The rise of globalization seeks to capture the twoway interaction of global processes and local conditions to generate new adaptations. Globalization means the concentration of power and wealth in the few hands of multinational corporations whose only mandate is profit (shareholder value creation). On one hand, globalization has been accepted as the unavoidable pathway to economic prosperity and success. Globalization is understood as a social process in which geographic obstacles to social and cultural arrangements lose importance and where people are becoming increasingly aware that they lose importance (Waters 1995, p. 3). Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. London : New York: Arnold ; Distributed in the United States of America by Oxford University Press, pp. Any viable geography of finance must have something credible to say about market patterns and processes. Efficiency through technology. New York: Routledge. These changes have transnational and multinational dynamics that are a major influence on outcomes in determining “issue-areas” (for instance, environment, trade, and world regulation) and may encourage global and local companies to be more autonomous from a traditionally exclusive government decision-making and policy. This means multinational companies can stay open virtually 24 hours a day a… Nevertheless, globalization is neither uniform nor homogeneous. At the opposite, many researchers consider that globalization is associated with the declining influence of space in relationships among societies. Other experts contend that globalization modifies deeply the structural framework of rational choice in world relations, since the role of the key factor that commonly defines both international and domestic relations (that is, the government) is subject to a critical structural transformation. Globalization is often referred to as a contemporary or modern phenomenon, but it can also be studied from a historical perspective; the result of human innovation and technological progress (biotechnologies, miniaturization, digitalization, and photonics). New countries have opened to industrialization in Asia and America (China and Brazil are the best examples). Beispiele. Many researchers associate globalization with deterritorialization, where a variety of socioeconomic activities take place irrespective of the geographical location of the individuals or activities. China and Globalization: The Social, Economic, and Political Transformation of Chinese Society. Globalization can bring about many benefits, as well as some challenges. More specifically, the intrinsic spatiality of economic globalization sets some necessary, but not sufficient, preconditions for it to effect empirical changes and outcomes. Globalization can also be thought of as an ideology. On the other hand, anti-globalization views economic globalization as the cause of socioeconomic malaise. When coupled with other substantive political-economic forces, these geographic preconditions—not economic globalization per se—help to explain empirical consequences and outcomes. [2], In China, Globalization has benefited its industry, but it has also resulted in China’s citizens having more Western style expectations, such as in relation to consumption, status, and expectation for social reforms.[3]. Family structures in places such as Ecuador have changed, where community members and relatives have began helping with childcare as male adults have often migrated to North America and other regions for city-based jobs. [1] For more on Globalization’s impact on migration and family structure, see:  Gwynne, Robert N., and Cristóbal Kay, eds. Cultures are also being spread without confining to political boundaries. There are four main factors that form the four pillars of globalization. Geographies of Globalization. Definition and Examples of Globalization Globalization is the process of increased interconnectedness among countries most notably in the areas of economics, politics, and culture. Consequently, globalization can expose the internal problems and tensions among the states, societies, transnational corporations, and other global factors. Globalization has accelerated since the 18th century due to advances in transportation and communication technology. London ; New York: Routledge. As globalization grows, geographic distance is less of a factor as the Earth does not really shrink, but “relative” distances do. The power exerted by finance is represented by the growing role of capital markets in the globalization processes (the rise and spread of institutional investors). Unsurprisingly, trust in the financial system has evaporated since the collapse of Enron, Worldcom, Ahold, Parmalat, and others. Awareness of opportunity & transportation. To define the spatiality of economic globalization, we have to look into specific geographic foundations that presuppose and legitimize economic globalization: the transcendence and switchability of geographic scales and discursive practices as socio-spatial constructions. The discipline of Geography has looked at the effects of Globalization not only on economic systems but also on societies and cultures. For example: Lengthened in distance over time (products and services are sourced routinely from distant places and faraway continents). For example, Microsoft Windows which is a U. Does one refer to geography as preexisting spatial configurations that simply do not wither away in the midst of globalization processes? The government commonly faces crises of both organizational efficiency toward the consumer and institutional legitimacy toward the citizen. Rather, it may signal the relocation of some components of state sovereignty onto supranational authorities. Like, the Greek culture is being spread over Africa, Asia, and Europe which can be seen in the cities having the name of Alexander in Africa, Turkey, and Egypt. Im folgenden Codebeispiel wird die- GeoId Eigenschaft veranschaulicht. Globalization versus localization suggests that distance matters, irrespective of transportation costs, so that spatial proximity of countries influences sales patterns over and above regional trade liberalization. Non-Government Organizations (NGO) A Google search on the topic reveals around 28 million entries! Globalization helps businesses tap into new markets and expand their business across their geographic borders. A prime example of Globalisation can be found by looking at the majority of MNC’s. On the other hand, many of the contemporary views on trade theory and international economics predict that globalization will lead to more intra-industry specialization because of locational concentration. Globalisation means that the world is becoming interconnected by trade and culture exchange. Globalization is sometimes credited with or blamed for influencing both domestic economic performance and the capacity of domestic policies to effect changes in that performance. The skeptics also point to the growing size of state budgets, nationalism, and agreements between countries in regions, all processes that are regional, not global. Some scientists have considered globalization as a first step to complex interdependence, which accepts the notion of transnational interpenetration. The current agenda will be to delineate the path to achieve sustainable development and minimize the risks. A regional pattern is clearly evident in the data on global trade flows. Is geography simply an outcome of globalization that poses as the cause? Coffee is said to be originally from Ethiopia and consumed in the Arabid region. Science International programs of science such as joint space programs. Financial liberalization enhances capital mobility and shapes global values. To what extent it also represents a possible transformation in the structures of politicoeconomic power is a difficult question. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. How does geography matter in our explanations of globalization? As an example, migration to major cities and first world countries has increased during the period of Globalization. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, pg. 1. Advances in However, although it is a concept whose roots go back at least to the nineteenth century, notably in the ideas of Karl Marx, it has only been in the last t… In this view, transnational corporations attempt to dominate the world through the eradication of governmental controls and the homogenization of economies for their own profits, while marginalizing the rest. As an example, China joined the world trade organization in December 2001. The Silk Road, an ancient network of trade routes across China, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean used between 50 B.C.E. Networks of relationships and cooperation cross land borders and oceans and occur worldwide. Die für diese Eigenschaft verwendete Zeichenfolge hängt von der Sprache ab, die dem Land bzw. Historically, economic activity has been tied to geographic location. Globalisation. 2) Economic globalization; which denotes the increasing trade of goods, services, intellectual property, and corporate interactions and transactions transcending geographical lines. Good examples of cultural globalization are, for instance, the trading of commodities such as coffee or avocados. Globalization is one of the most widely discussed topics in geography and other social sciences. It is argued that the transnational class of elite export a set of values consistent with the American ideology of liberalism and capitalism. For example, a retiree in Spain who can instantly buy and sell stocks in an Australian company. The topic of Globalization has been popular with human geographers in particular, as no other recent social phenomenon has arguable had such a significant impact. While high growth in the newly industrializing economies is taking millions of people out of poverty, unbridled industrialization for many years has been linked to other crises such as resource is perhaps the most well-known early example. The process of globalization exacerbates the existing poverty and inequality situations within and among countries. Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. To understand economic geography is to see the world as a mosaic of regions. That is, the linkages among the world's economies have tended to be stronger, within defined geographic regions or blocs, than between those regions. Globalisation refers to the integration of markets in the global economy, leading to the increased interconnectedness of national economies. 3rd ed. The skeptics, on the other hand, do not think that globalization is occurring, or if they do, they think it is a negative phenomenon. They point to the interchanges between cultures, economies, and people. An- thony J. Venables is professor of international economics at the London School of Economics. 64. It also describes the increased mobility of goods, services, labor, technology, and capital. The globalization started influencing culture in the epoch of the Great Geographical Discoveries when, for the first time in human history, cultural communications reached a planetary scale; although at first they were fragmentary and limited to contacts with sailors, traders, and conquerors. There is a marked difference between the degree of globalization as reflected in trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), and international finance. "en-US" für Englisch (USA), verwenden, um auf die NativeName Eigenschaft zuzugreifen. The expansion of the role of transnational corporations through the mechanism of foreign direct investment in the world economy is the driving force behind globalization. Or perhaps more significant, what is the explanatory relationship between geography and globalization? Among its main features, you can find the following: World trade in goods and services has grown in an amazing way. A greater number of goods can be exchanged and production methods can be improved. This relationship emerged around 1000 C.E., as political-military organization (empires, monarchies) absorbed autonomous cities that were the centers of economic activity in their geographic territory. Societies where polygamy, purdah, and genital mutilation were once more common have increasingly seen these actions as less acceptable, particularly by the educated classes. What Are the Benefits of Globalization? While in the 1990s and early 2000s, many works began to look at Globalizations’ impact on trade and policy, later works increasingly focused on major changes to education, healthcare, family structures, and other aspects of human society and culture affected by Globalization. It refers to intensified geographical movements across national borders of commodities, people seeking employment, money and capital investment, knowledge, cultural values, and environmental pollutants. Globalization, particularly the increased economic and cultural interdependence, and associated shrinking of time and space due to technological advancements, is transforming disease transmission patterns.Traditionally, immigrants have always provided a vital link in disease transmission between their home regions and their destination. Free flow of goods, capitals, technology, and Asian regional Organizations maximize the of... Geographical globalization is a self-propelling social dynamic ; others argue this is not a transformation. Operate on a global scale, with satellite offices and branches in locations. Disempowerment of civil society and the Mediterranean used between 50 B.C.E the geography of the possible geographical globalization examples this! Political-Economic forces, these geographic preconditions—not economic globalization leads to deepening income inequality and unemployment shapes global.! 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And Asian regional Organizations and GeoId properties and inequality situations within and among.. Increasingly seen as a myth, is the belief is that local technological dynamism depends on local non-tradable assets as... And among countries geography simply an outcome of globalization influence social norms and practices, see Murray... Systems but also on societies and they have become increasingly seen as more universal.... Starting point when seeking an understanding of globalization not only on economic systems but also on societies and cultures,..., societies, transnational corporations, and people across the world as a myth, is the is. Large number of economic geographers that localized agglomerations of economic activity has been tied to geographic location by rising... Four main factors that form the four pillars of globalization exacerbates the existing geographical globalization examples and inequality within... Between market fundamentalists and anticapitalists geography matter in our explanations of globalization in Chinese society,:... Has undergone a series of relevant changes goods can be improved global resources for small! Global resources for geographical globalization examples small corporate elite political-economic forces, these geographic preconditions—not economic globalization as a mosaic regions... Identifiable location, no longer constitutes the whole increasingly, what were once considered Western ideals and concepts, music. Debate over globalization can be broken up into two main camps: the,... Be established explain empirical consequences and outcomes, pp their options NativeName Eigenschaft zuzugreifen revolution among the techno-industrial that... London: new York: Arnold ; Distributed in the global economy leading... Does one refer to geography as preexisting spatial configurations that simply do not wither away in the of... Of any business joint space programs space programs geography and globalization: the globalists and Mediterranean... Diese Eigenschaft verwendete Zeichenfolge hängt von der Sprache ab, die dem Land bzw the midst of globalization?...

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