cyrus the great definition

By Herodotus’s own admission, however, this is only one of several versions of the events that he had come across. But he held it together with mercy and an unusual degree of compassion for the people he ruled. Sardis, the Lydian capital, was captured in 547 or 546, and Croesus was either killed or burned himself to death, though according to other sources he was taken prisoner by Cyrus and well treated. Cyrus definition: known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder . When Cyrus defeated Astyages he also inherited Median possessions in eastern Iran, but he had to engage in much warfare to consolidate his rule in this region. Achaemenian Dynasty (559–330 BCE), ancient Iranian dynasty whose kings founded and ruled the Achaemenian Empire. Pasargadae, built by Cyrus after he took the throne, was the ceremonial capital city of the early Achaemenid dynasty. Cyrus the Great - king of Persia and founder of the Persian Author of. According to the legend, Astyages, the king of the Medes and overlord of the Persians, gave his daughter in marriage to his vassal in Persis, a prince called Cambyses. Croesus, king of Lydia in Asia Minor (Anatolia), had enlarged his domains at the expense of the Medes when he heard of the fall of Astyages, and Cyrus, as successor of the Median king, marched against Lydia. Noun 1. A Mede was probably made an adviser to the Achaemenian king, as a sort of chief minister; on later reliefs at Persepolis, a capital of the Achaemenian kings from the time of Darius, a Mede is frequently depicted together with the great king. Astyages, having had a dream that the baby would grow up to overthrow him, ordered Cyrus slain. His reputation as “great” was probably enhanced by the extent to which his figure was mythologized. His empire, stretching from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River, was the largest that had ever existed at the time of his rule. Next Cyrus turned to Babylonia, where the dissatisfaction of the people with the ruler Nabonidus gave him a pretext for invading the lowlands. (3) This title should be applicable to such a ruler who might have constructed a strong wall across a mountain pass to protect his kingdom from the incursions of the Gog and Magog . The Greek historian Herodotus provides the most famous account of Cyrus’s life in his History, a work that was probably as much fiction as it was fact (if not more). God employed him in doing service to … 650 BC), King of Persia the grandfather of Cyrus the Great; and Cyrus the Younger (died 401 BC), brother to the Persian King Artaxerxes II of Persia son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan, of a family [which] always [exercised] kingship. 6 sentence examples: 1. Questions and answers about Cyrus the Great. Cyrus’s career as a military leader began in earnest in 550 BCE, when he rose up against his Median overlord (and by some accounts, his grandfather), King Astyages. There also seems to have been little innovation in government and rule, but rather a willingness to borrow, combined with an ability to adapt what was borrowed to the new empire. Cyrus also kept Babylon as a winter capital. Cyrus also appears briefly in the Bible as the ruler who freed the Jewish people from captivity in Babylonia. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cyrus The Great is the candidate that fits this description quite fittingly. Most scholars agree, however, that Cyrus the Great was at least the second of the name to rule in Persia. Cyrus, when he reached manhood in Persis, revolted against his maternal grandfather and overlord. The conquest was quick, for even the priests of Marduk, the national deity of the great metropolis of Babylon, had become estranged from Nabonidus. He became the epitome of the great qualities expected of a ruler in antiquity, and he assumed heroic features as a conqueror who was tolerant and magnanimous as well as brave and daring. Cyrus led several military . All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Cyrus was to them as a "shepherd" ( Isaiah 44:28; 45:1). Not much is known about the early life of Cyrus. Cyrus had to borrow the traditions of kingship from the Medes, who had ruled an empire when the Persians were merely their vassals. It resembled a park of 2x3 km in which several monumental buildings were to be seen. (Biography) called the Younger. Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian empire, the dynastic family who led the Persians between 550 and 330 BC Cyrus II King of Anshan (Maybe) The Greek "father of history" Herodotus never says Cyrus II the Great came from a royal Persian family, but rather that he acquired his power through the Medes, to whom he was related by marriage. Cyrus was undoubtedly the guiding genius in the creation not only of a great empire but in the formation of Achaemenian culture and civilization. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The ruins today, though few, arouse admiration in the visitor. In Herodotus’s historically dubious account of Cyrus’s upbringing, Cyrus overthrows his grandfather Astyages and unites the latter’s Median kingdom with the Persian one he inherited. He not only conciliated the Medes but united them with the Persians in a kind of dual monarchy of the Medes and Persians. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Cyrus+the+Great, Ancient Greek historian Herodotus described their victory over the invading Persian army in the sixth century BC, and how Tomyris dipped the head of King, Perhaps the first designed garden was built by, The Iranian Labor News Agency (ILNA) reported the carvings date back to the time of, According to Herodotus, King Croesus reigned for 14 years, from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian King, The series concludes Sunday, April 14, as Kiersten Neumann presents "From Persepolis to Chicago: Achaemenid Art and Architecture and the Oriental Institute." ): Founder of the Persian Empire; b. What does Cyrus mean? Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Cy•rus (sī′rəs), USA pronunciation n. Ancient History, Biographical ("the Elder'' or "the Great'') c600–529 b.c., king of Persia 558?–529: founder of the Persian empire. Our knowledge of his reign after this point is vague, although it’s likely that he died while undertaking campaigns on his eastern frontier. Pasargadae was one of the oldest residences of the Achaemenid kings, founded by Cyrus the Great (r.559-530). Cyrus the Great, also called Cyrus II, (born 590–580 bce, Media, or Persis [now in Iran]—died c. 529, Asia), conqueror who founded the Achaemenian empire, centred on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. The Cyrus Cylinder is a building inscription that described and defended Cyrus's conquest of Babylon. See more. DICTIONARY.COM When he was 10 years old, Cyrus, because of his outstanding qualities, was discovered by Astyages, who, in spite of the dream, was persuaded to allow the boy to live. died 401 bc, Persian satrap of Lydia: revolted against his brother Artaxerxes II, but was killed at the battle of Cunaxa. Director, Asia Institute, Pahlavi University, Shīrāz, Iran, 1969–74. Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. The dynasty came to an end with the death of Darius … In any case, it is clear that Cyrus came from a long line of ruling chiefs. He conciliated local populations by supporting local customs and even sacrificing to local deities. Cyrus led other much-mythologized campaigns during his reign, such as his conquests of Lydia and Babylonia. One was the city of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, former capital of the Medes, and another was a new capital of the empire, Pasargadae, in Persis, said to be on the site where Cyrus had won the battle against Astyages. The meaning of his name is in dispute, for it is not known whether it was a personal name or a throne name given to him when he became a ruler. The capture of Babylon delivered not only Mesopotamia into the hands of Cyrus but also Syria and Palestine, which had been conquered previously by the Babylonians. "I want to tell you that the Jewish people have a long memory; so we remember the proclamation of the great king, Persia had a rich history dating back to 550 BC, when the Achaemenid Empire was founded by, Their topics include past and present as paradoxon theorema in Polybius, documents and narrative: reading the Roman-Carthaginian treaties in Polybius' Histories, Polybius and Xenophon: Hannibal and, The list of conquerors and imperialists who have come and gone is daunting: From, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Steppe queen movie makes Kazakhs wonder if life will imitate art, Paradise on Earth: Ancient gardens in Iran, Persian Gardens the focus of Barony Club talk, THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REMOTE VIEWING (CLAIRVOYANCE) AND PREDICTING THE FUTURE, Learn about ancient Egyptian scrolls in Barrington, Nowruz a time of resistance for many Iranians, The Trump Temple Coins that Changed the World now in Silver, America's difficult choices in Afghanistan, cys-his2 zinc finger transcription factor. In the 4th century BCE, Xenophon wrote a biography that framed Cyrus as the ideal ruler; Ctesias also wrote about Cyrus’s life in the 4th century, offering an account that diverges notably from Herodotus’s. ABOVE: Presumed relief carving of Cyrus the Great in the form of a supernatural being from Pasargadae In his book The Histories, the Greek historian Herodotos of Halikarnassos (lived c. 484 – c. 425 BC) portrays Cyrus as an ideal ruler and paragon of wisdom. The Achaemenid Empire, c. 550-330 BCE, or First Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great, in Western and Central Asia. See more. The various oral traditions relating to his birth and youth are preserved only in the works of Greek authors like Herodotus, Ctesias, and Xenophon, who present contradictory accounts of a mostly legendary nature. Alternate versions of Cyrus’s life can be found in other Classical texts, such as works by the Greek historians Xenophon and Ctesias—both of whom lived not long after Herodotus. His chief adviser, however, instead gave the baby to a shepherd to raise. Cyrus the Great Essay * Cyrus the Great, without a doubt, had huge impacts to not only world history but impacts that can still be seen today. established massive Persian empire across the norhtern Mediterranean and into northwestern India by 500 • CYRUS THE GREAT (noun) (Biography) known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder. Cyrus - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Several revolts of the Greek cities were later suppressed with severity. Pasargadae definition, an ancient ruined city in S Iran, NE of Persepolis: an early capital of ancient Persia; tomb of Cyrus the Great. 2. Information and translations of Cyrus in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on … It is a testimony to the capability of the founder of the Achaemenian empire that it continued to expand after his death and lasted for more than two centuries. Cyrus pieced his kingdom together using a mixture of conquest and diplomacy, attesting to his skills as a warrior and a statesman. The Greek historian Herodotus recorded one of the most well-known legends about the ruler in his History. He spared his enemies and often gave them Cyrus had at least one daughter, Atossa (who married her brother Cambyses), and possibly two others, but they played no role in history. According to the most well-known account of Herodotus, Cyrus was the son of the Persian king Cambyses (c. 580-559 BCE) and the Median princess Mandane, daughter of the Median king Astyages (585-550 BCE). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Cyrus seems to have had several capitals. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Herodotus’s story may be apocryphal, but Cyrus’s conquests in Central Asia were probably genuine, since a city in farthest Sogdiana was called Cyreschata, or Cyropolis, by the Greeks, which seems to prove the extent of his Eastern conquests. Herodotus’s telling proceeds in a recognizably mythic fashion: King Astyages has a dream that his grandson Cyrus would usurp him. In the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1–4), Cyrus is famous for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. Define Cyrus the Great. An account of the latter appears in the Bible: Cyrus is the ruler that liberated the Jewish people from their Babylonian captors. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. On the son’s committing suicide in captivity, his mother swore revenge and defeated and killed Cyrus. According to the Greek historian, Cyrus was at first successful in defeating the ruler of the nomads—called the Massagetai—who was a woman, and captured her son. We’ve gathered some interesting words donated to English from Portuguese … as well as some that just don’t translate at all. Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylonia in 536 BC. Cyrus's tomb looked like a ziggurat with an ancient Armenian templelike space on top. died ?529 bc, king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire 2. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Cyrus the Great (sī`rəs), d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids Achaemenids, dynasty of ancient Persia. Meaning of Cyrus. Little is known about the last years of Cyrus’s life, and various contradicting stories of his death exist. In the year 1971, Iran celebrated the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the monarchy by Cyrus. Cyrus the Great: 1 n king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600-529 BC) Synonyms: Cyrus II , Cyrus the Elder Example of: Rex , king , male monarch a male sovereign; ruler of a kingdom Similar beliefs also exist about the founders of later dynasties throughout the history of Iran. The ruling dynasty of the Persians that was settled in Fārs in southwestern Iran (possibly the Parsumash of the later Assyrian records) traced its ancestry back to an eponymous ancestor, Hāxamanish, or Achaemenes. It does, however, indicate the high esteem in which Cyrus was held, not only by his own people, the Persians, but by the Greeks and others. He had two sons, one of whom, Cambyses, succeeded him; the other, Bardiya (Smerdis of the Greeks), was probably secretly put to death by Cambyses after he became ruler. Examples of Cyrus the Great in the following topics: The Achaemenid Empire Under Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Achaemenid Empire became the first global empire. In short, the figure of Cyrus has survived throughout history as more than a great man who founded an empire. Among the notable kings of the empire were Cyrus II (the Great) and Darius I. See more. Cyrus the Great (sī`rəs), d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids Achaemenids, dynasty of ancient Persia. Cyrus definition, king of Persia 558?–529: founder of the Persian empire. Little is known of the family life of Cyrus. Cyrus was the leader o the Persians,conquered the Medes and united the Iranian people under one ruler for the first From the rule of, Nowruz is a pre- Islamic holiday and many Iranians travel to the Shiraz province in order to congregate at the tomb of. According to the Roman geographer Strabo of Amasia, the palace of Pasargadae was built on the site where king Cyrus (r.559-530) defeated the leader of the Medes, Astyages, in 550 BCE (Strabo, … One cuneiform text in Akkadian—the language of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) in the pre-Christian era—asserts he was the. His saga follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world. One states, “I am Cyrus the King, an Achaemenian.” Cyrus was the seventh in the Achaemenid dynastic line. Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Persian Empire, called himself … Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cyrus-the-Great, Iran Chamber Society - Biography of Cyrus II, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Cyrus the Great, The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - Cyrus the Great, The Father and Liberator. Cyrus was also tolerant toward the Babylonians and others. Cyrus the Great synonyms, Cyrus the Great pronunciation, Cyrus the Great translation, English dictionary definition of Cyrus the Great. Cyrus the Great in Kurdish Kurmanji translation and definition " Cyrus the Great ", English-Kurdish Kurmanji Dictionary online add translation The Ionian Greek cities on the Aegean Sea coast, as vassals of the Lydian king, now became subject to Cyrus, and most of them submitted after short sieges. Definition of Cyrus in the Definitions.net dictionary. Start studying AP World History Chapter 4. Start studying Cyrus the Great. Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian, Harvard University. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. But Cyrus was not only a great conqueror and administrator; he held a place in the minds of the Persian people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome or Moses for the Israelites. Cyrus was born between 590 and 580 bce, either in Media or, more probably, in Persis, the modern Fārs province of Iran. The sentiments of esteem or even awe in which Persians held him were transmitted to the Greeks, and it was no accident that Xenophon chose Cyrus to be the model of a ruler for the lessons he wished to impart to his fellow Greeks. All Free. The story of the childhood of Cyrus, as told by Herodotus with echoes in Xenophon, may be called a Cyrus legend since it obviously follows a pattern of folk beliefs about the almost superhuman qualities of the founder of a dynasty. Omissions? Only two short inscriptions of Cyrus II, the Great, survive. (3) This title should be applicable to such a ruler who might have constructed a strong wall across a mountain pass to protect his kingdom from the incursions of the Gog and Magog . He is also remembered in the Cyrus legend—first recorded by Xenophon, Greek soldier and author, in his Cyropaedia—as a tolerant and ideal monarch who was called the father of his people by the ancient Persians. [6] Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East , [ 6 ] expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia , parts of Europe and the … There is no doubt that the Cyrus saga arose early among the Persians and was known to the Greeks. Updates? After his conquest of Babylonia, he again turned to the east, and Herodotus tells of his campaign against nomads living east of the Caspian Sea. Cyrus The Great is the candidate that fits this description quite fittingly. Thus it was by diplomacy as well as force of arms that he established the largest empire known until his time. In October 539 bce, the greatest city of the ancient world fell to the Persians. There is no historical evidence of such a king’s existence.…, …return to their homeland by Cyrus II the Great, master of the Medes and Persians, who captured Babylon in 539. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous Astyages tries to forestall the events of the dream but instead brings them to fruition. From this marriage Cyrus was born. Cyrus (Persian: کوروش) is a male given name.It is the given name of a number of Persian kings.Most notably it refers to Cyrus the Great.Cyrus is also the name of Cyrus I of Anshan (ca. Definition and Origins by Daan Nijssen published on 21 February 2018 Cyrus II (d. 530 BCE), also known as Cyrus the Great, was the fourth king of Anshan and the first king of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus the Great, the founder of the old Persian Achaemenid Empire, is famous for respecting the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. The most important source for his life is the Greek historian Herodotus. Herodotus says that the Persians called Cyrus their father, while later Achaemenian rulers were not so well regarded. It’s clear that he died while campaigning on his empire’s eastern frontier, somewhere near the Oxus (Amu Darya) and Jaxartes (Syr Darya) rivers. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The idealized biography by Xenophon is a work for the edification of the Greeks concerning the ideal ruler, rather than a historical treatise. Astyages marched against the rebel, but his army deserted him and surrendered to Cyrus in 550 bce. Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. After inheriting the empire of the Medes, Cyrus first had to consolidate his power over Iranian tribes on the Iranian plateau before expanding to the west. The manner in which the baby Cyrus was given to a shepherd to raise is reminiscent of Moses in the bulrushes in Egypt, and the overthrow of his tyrannical grandfather has echoes in other myths and legends. CYRUS THE GREAT (also called Cyrus the Elder, to distinguish him from Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II, killed at Cunaxa, 401 B.C. In the Bible he is the liberator of the Jews who were captive in Babylonia. Cyrus the Great used powerful armies and military prowess to expand his kingdom. No Persian chauvinist, Cyrus was quick to learn from the conquered peoples. • CYRUS THE GREAT (noun) The noun CYRUS THE GREAT has 1 sense: 1. king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600-529 BC) Familiarity information: CYRUS THE GREAT used as a noun is very rare. It is noteworthy that after the Achaemenian empire the name does not appear again in sources relating to Iran, which may indicate some special sense of the name. Cyrus the Great. See also anabasis, katabasis Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: [3] Kuruš (c. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC [4]), commonly known as Cyrus the Great, [5] also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. His personality as seen by the Greeks influenced them and Alexander the Great, and, as the tradition was transmitted by the Romans, may be considered to influence our thinking even now. Cyrus the Great, also called Cyrus II, (born 590–580 bce, Media, or Persis [now in Iran]—died c. 529, Asia), conqueror who founded the Achaemenian empire, centred on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. Later writers in antiquity also took part in lionizing Cyrus, sacrificing historical accuracy in the process. … Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Herodotus offers an account of Cyrus’s downfall wherein the queen of a nomadic group that Cyrus is trying to conquer, and whose son Cyrus has killed, placed Cyrus’s disembodied head in a bag of human blood to “give [him his] fill”. The Elamites, indigenous inhabitants of Persis, were also the teachers of the Persians in many ways, as can be seen, for example, in the Elamite dress worn by Persians and by Elamite objects carried by them on the stone reliefs at Persepolis. The ruler of Cilicia in Asia Minor had become an ally of Cyrus when the latter marched against Croesus, and Cilicia retained a special status in Cyrus’s empire. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenian Empire. Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian, Harvard University Cyrus Cylinder is a work for the edification of the.... To borrow the traditions of kingship from the conquered peoples at least the second the. 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