In 1841, combining Bell's rotary intaglio textile press, Fox Talbot's halftone screen process, and Swan's carbon tissue coating, Klic developed the first gravure printing press. The image to be reproduced is etched into the metal plate, sometimes with the use of a laser. These demands include increasingly short-run production and time-to-market, packaging customization, ready to recycle packaging substrates, and … The rotogravure printing process (commonly shortened to gravure) is a method of intaglio printing. The excessive friction caused during web gravure printing can also result in high static charge buildup. Gravure printing is one of the common processes used in the converting industry. In the first half of the sixteenth century, the invention of chemical etching of intaglio plates was a great leap forward for the process. Widely used Printing methods are, Gravure direct and or offset, Flexo, Screen, Letter Press, Digital, Inkjet, etc. The flexographic and gravure printing processes release hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) through the application of the ink or other materials to the substrate (material to be printed), as well as during the cleaning process, where solvents are used to clean the printing The web roll is placed on a reel stand, which has developed over the years from simply holding one roll at a time (which required press stoppage when the roll ran out and needed to be replaced) to a two-roll stand (which required a good deal of operator skill to switch to the new roll when the first one ran out) to fully automated, two-roll unwinding systems. When people refer to printing, especially color printing, they usually think of lithography. Today almost all gravure printing is done using engraved copper cylinders protected from wear by the application of a thin electroplate of chromium. This tendency to isolate regions of web tension ensure that any anomalies are dealt with before the printing unit. Chemical etching made the intaglio process even more favored by artists, and intaglio printing proved to provide better-quality illustrations than did letterpress, so it was not uncommon for the text of a book to be printed using letterpress, and illustrated pages to be printed using intaglio, the separate pages being collated together after printing. These can either be sheetfed or web-fed, and are more commonly known as copperplate printing. Printing typically uses common printing equipment suitable for defining patterns on material, such as screen printing, flexography, gravure, offset lithography, and inkjet.By electronic industry standards, these are low cost processes. can be printed in the gravure press. On top of the copper, after engraving, is plated a thin layer of chrome, which is applied to protect the etched copper surface from the abrasion of the doctor blade during printing. Fox Talbot soon hit upon the halftone screen, which broke up continuous images into very small, discrete dots which could be varied in size and shade of gray. Unlike other processes, gravure uses a depressed or sunken surface for the desired image. Faster press speeds in recent years, however, have resulted in excessive heat buildup in smaller impression rollers. The gravure process requires careful preparation, but it produces good printing quality and colour, even on less expensive paper. Newer systems carefully measure the diameter of the roll repeatedly as it is unwinding (to account of any eccentricities or out-of-roundness), either by ultrasound sensors or other means, and automatically adjust the speed of the motor driving the unwinding reel. In 1938, multi-color gravure presses were used for the printing of Jell-O boxes. Ink is directly applies to the cylinders and then transferred to the substrate. The image areas are etched into the surface of the cylinder as a collection of tiny cells. Gravure, like other printing processes, has specific ink requirements that produce the best results, specifically, highly fluid liquid inks with volatile solvents. (See Ink: Printing Requirements: Gravure.) Most gravure printing performed today is web-fed rotogravure printing, with occasional sheetfed use. This is known as flexo gravure, and is used to print high-quality packaging, advertising, and other materials commonly printed by traditional flexographic means, but with the increased quality of gravure printing. But it is also bulkier, and more often than not needs to be printed on both sides simultaneously. The one desperate need of any printing press is, as its name indicates, pressure. 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